Options Trading Blog posts page 2
Thursday, July 7, 2016
The market has been quite volatile over the past month or so. The S&P 500 started out June trading close to the 2,120 level and then fell to around the 2,000 level before rebounding again. With the Federal Reserve threatening and then backing off from a potential rate hike and the continued threat of more terrorist activities around the globe, there is a decent opportunity that the markets may continue to be volatile. Let's take a look at an option strategy that may be able to take advantage of this uncertain outlook.
An option strangle is an option strategy that option traders can use when they think there is an imminent move in the underlying but the direction is uncertain. With an option strangle, the trader is betting on both sides of a trade by purchasing a put and a call generally just out-of-the-money (OTM), but with the same expiration. By buying a put and a call that are OTM, an option trader pays a lower initial price than with an option straddle where the call and put purchased share the same strike price.
However, this comes with a price so-to-speak; the stock will have to make a much larger move than if the option straddle were implemented because the breakeven points of the trade will be further out due to buying both options OTM. The trader is, arguably, taking a larger risk (because a bigger move is needed than with an option straddle), but is paying a lower price. Like many trade strategies there are pros and cons to each. If this or any other option strategy sounds a little overwhelming to you, I would invite you to checkout the Options Education section on our website.
An option strangle has two breakeven points just like the option straddle. To calculate these points simply add the net premium (call premium + put premium) to the strike price of the call (for upside breakeven) and subtract the net premium from the put's strike (to calculate downside breakeven). If at expiration, the stock has advanced or dropped past one of these breakeven points, the profit potential of the strategy is unlimited (for upside moves). The position will take a 100% loss if the stock is trading between the put and call strikes upon expiration. Remember that the maximum loss a trader can take on an option strangle is the net premium paid.
The implied volatility (IV) of the options plays a key role in an option strangle as well. With no short options in this spread, the IV exposure is concentrated. When IV is considered low compared to historical volatility (HV), it is a relatively “cheap” time to buy options. Since the option strangle involves buying a call and put, buying “cheaper” options is critical. If the IV is expected to increase after the option strangle is initiated, this could increase the option premiums with all other factors held constant which is certainly a bonus for long option strangle holders.
To create an option strangle, a trader will purchase one out-of-the-money (OTM) call and one OTM put. An option trader may think Kroger Co. (KR) looks good for a potential option strangle since at the time of this writing, the stock is trading around $37.50 after earnings a few weeks ago. With IV dropping big after earnings and the trader unsure in what direction the KR may move now, the option strangle could be the way to go. The trader can buy both an October 40 call and an October 35 put. For simplicity, we will assign a price of 0.80 for both - resulting in an initial investment of $1.60 (0.80 + 0.80) for our trader (which again is the maximum potential loss).
Kroger Stock Rallies
Should KR rally past the call’s breakeven point which is $41.60 (40 + 1.60) at October expiration (over 100 days from now), the 35 put expires worthless and the $40 call expires in-the-money (ITM) resulting in the strangle trader collecting on the position. If, for example at expiration the stock is trading at $44 which means the intrinsic value of the call $4 (44 – 40), the profit is $2.40 (4 – 1.60) which represents the intrinsic value less the premium paid.
Kroger Stock Declines
The same holds true if the stock falls below the put’s breakeven point at expiration. The put is in ITM and the call expires worthless. At expiration, if KR is trading below the put’s breakeven point of the trade which is $33.40 (35 – 1.60), a profit will be realized. The danger is that KR finishes between $35 and $40 as expiration occurs. In this case, both legs of the position expire worthless and the initial 1.60, or $160 of actual cash, is lost.
Notice that the maximum loss is the initial premium paid, setting a nice limit to potential losses. Profits and losses can be realized way before expiration and it is up to the trader to decide how and when to close the position. Potential profits on the strangle are unlimited which can be very rewarding but as always, a traders needs to decide how he or she will manage the position. Consider managing the position for profit and loss based on a certain percentage or a certain number of days or both!
Senior Options Instructor
Market Taker Mentoring
Thursday, June 30, 2016
Say you hear a takeover rumor. A $50 stock is rumored to be taken out at $55. Looks like a nice spec trade. You go to the option chain to look for some calls to buy. But, wow! The options seem to have gotten expensive. Implied volatility is jacked. Sometimes implied volatility can make options so expensive that even if the trade goes your way the profit is just not there--but the risk is. So, what's a trader to do?
One solution can be to buy a bull call spread instead of instead the outright call. The rationale? It's called hedging--hedging volatility premium. Whenever you buy options, you're getting long implied volatility. If implied volatility is expensive, the options are expensive too. And if implied volatility subsequently falls after you make the trade, those options drop in value too. So, what if you both buy and sell an option to create a spread? Let's look at the two legs of a bull call spread
Bull Call Spread - Long Leg
A bull call spread is when a trader buys one call and sells another that has a higher strike price. Look at it as two trades. The long call would be the one you might buy if you were to spec on the take-over stock. In the case of a take over, this call likely has high implied volatility as the market scrambles to buy up calls, making it pricey.
Bull Call Spread - Short Leg
Because there is a target price in which the take-over target is expected to be bought, you only need exposure up to a certain point--the take-over price. Why not sell a call at or above the expected take-over price? You're not giving up upside. But you are taking in (expensive) premium to hedge the (expensive) premium you're buying with the long call leg. It's a perfect spread.
Let's look at this in terms of absolute risk. A stock currently trading for $50 is rumored for take over at $55. News is expected within a couple of weeks.
Buy 1 Dec 50 call at $4
Sell 1 Dec 55 call at $2
Net debit $2
Max loss = $2 (That's better than just buying the 50 calls outright)
Max gain = $3 (That's the $5 spread minus the $2 premium)
Break even = $52 (That's $50 strike plus $2 spread premium)
Here the max loss/max gain ratio of the spread is 2:3. The max loss/max gain ratio of the outright call would be 4:1 (Remember, you expect the stock only to rise to $55). The spread looks better so far. Let's look at the break evens. The spread break-even is $52. The outright call's break even is $54. Better still.
With all option strategies, there are opportune times when they offer an advantage over an alternative strategy. Bull call spreads and take-over candidates are a natural fit. Traders always need to look for ways to construct the smartest position in terms of risk-reward.
Senior Options Instructor
Market Taker Mentoring
Tuesday, June 14, 2016
As an option trader, you have so many different strategies and risk/reward scenarios to think about before initializing a trade. Many of my students in my Group Coaching class as well as my one-on-one students ask me all the time how do you decide between buying a debit spread and selling a credit spread as one example. Let's take a look at a scenario below and some things for an option trader to think about.
Risk and Reward
A debit spread such as a bull call spread or a bear put spread is considered to have a better risk/reward ratio then a credit spread such as a bull put spread or a bear call spread depending on how it is initiated. Usually the reason is because the debit spread is implemented close to where the stock is currently trading with an expected move higher or lower. A credit spread is usually initiated out-of-the-money (OTM) in anticipation the spread will expire worthless or close to worthless with the underlying barely moving. Here is an example we talked about in class several months ago. LinkedIn Corp (LNKD) was trading around $187.50 at the time. The stock looked like it could drop lower. The trader could consider buying a bear put or selling a bear call spread.
If the option trader expected a move lower into the close of Friday, he or she could have considered buying a 185/187.5 debit spread for August expiration (4 days). If the 187.5 put cost the trader 2.25 and 1.15 was received for selling the 185 put, the bear put (debit) spread would cost the trader $1.10 (also the maximum loss if the stock is at $187.50 or higher at expiration) and have a maximum profit of $1.40 (2.50 (strike difference) – 1.10 (cost)) if the stock was trading at or below $185 at expiration. Thus the risk/reward ratio would be 1/1.27.
If the option trader was unsure if the $187.50 stock was going to move lower but felt the stock would at least stay below a resistance area around $190 by August expiration, the trader could sell a 190/192.5 credit spread with August expiration. If a credit of 1.00 was received for selling the 190 call and it cost the trader 0.50 to buy the 192.5, a net credit would be received of $0.50 for selling the bear call (credit) spread. The maximum gain for the spread is $0.50 if the stock is trading at $190 or lower at expiration and the maximum loss is $2 (2.50 (strike difference) – 0.50 (premium received)) if the stock is trading at or above $192.50 at expiration. Thus the risk reward ratio would be 4/1.
The risk/reward ratio on the credit spread (4/1) does not sound like something an option trader would strive for does it? Think of it this way though, the probability of the credit spread profiting are substantially better than the debit spread. The debit spread most certainly needs the stock to move lower at some point to profit. If the stock stays around $187.50 or moves higher, the puts will expire worthless and a loss is incurred from the initial debit ($1.10). With the credit spread, the stock can effectively do three things and it would still be able to profit. The stock can move below $187.50, trade sideways and even rise to just below breakeven at $190.50 (190 (sold call) + 0.50 (initial credit)) at expiration and the credit spread would profit. Of course if it closes at $190 or lower, the maximum profit of $0.50 is achieved because the spread expires worthless. A loss is only realized if the stock closes above the breakeven level of $190.50. I like to say OTM credit spreads have three out of four ways of making money and debit spreads usually have one way of profiting especially if the underlying is basically around the long option when the spread is initialized.
There are several more factors to consider when choosing between a debit spread and a credit spread like time until expiration, implied volatility and bid/ask spreads just to mention a few. We will talk about these other factors in future blogs. The risk/reward of the spread and the probability of the trade profiting are just a few to consider mentioned above. A trader always wants to put the odds on his or her side to increase the chances of extracting money from the market. The credit spread can put the odds substantially on the trader's side but it comes at a cost of a higher risk/reward ratio as well.
Senior Options Instructor
Market Taker Mentoring
Wednesday, June 8, 2016
If you have ever bought an option and watched the premium go south because of the underlying traded sideways or moved the wrong way, I bet you have thought what it would be like to be the seller of that option. Selling options can be a great way to generate income but it can also produce a large amount of risk as well. If the underlying moves against the position, a huge loss can be realized. A better way to generate income by selling premium might be to consider a spread instead.
Selling a credit spread involves selling an option while purchasing a higher or lower strike option (depending on bullish or bearish) with the same expiration and with the short option being more expensive than the long option. For example, selling a put credit spread involves selling a put and buying a lower strike put with the same expiration. Maximum profit would occur if the underlying is trading at or above the sold put strike at expiration; the spread would expire worthless. Selling a call spread involves selling a call and buying a higher strike call with the same expiration. Maximum profit would be realized if the stock is trading at or below the sold call strike at expiration; the spread would expire worthless.
The long options are there to protect the position from the potential losses associated with selling options. With a spread, the most the position can lose is the difference between the strikes minus the initial credit received. This would occur if the stock is trading above at or above the long call or at or below the long put. Using a call credit spread as an example, if a trader sold a 50 call and bought a 55 call, creating a credit of $1, the most the trader can lose is $4 (5 – 1) if the underlying closed at or above $55.
The objective of a credit spread is to profit from the short options' time decay while protecting gains with further out-of-the-money (OTM) long options. The goal is to buy back the spread for less than what it was sold for or not at all (meaning it expires worthless). Just like selling short stock, a trader wants to sell something that is expensive and buy it back for cheaper. The same holds true for credit spreads.
Here is a credit spread trade idea we recently looked at in Market Taker LIVE Advantage Group Coaching. When Amazon Inc. (AMZN) was trading around $545, an October 495/500 put spread could have been sold for 0.60 with about 25 days to go until expiration. This means the October 500 put strike was sold and the October 495 put strike was purchased for a credit of 0.60. The maximum profit in the spread was the credit received (0.60) and would be realized if AMZN was trading at or above $500 at October expiration. Remember that a profit would be realized if the spread could be bought back (closed out) for less than the credit of 0.60. The most that can be lost on the spread is 4.40 (5 – 0.60) and that would be realized if the stock was to close at or below $495 at expiration.
What’s the Point?
The risk/reward ratio of this credit spread begs the question why would anyone want to risk maybe eight times or more on what they stand to make in the example above? The simple answer is probability. Given the ability to repeat the trade over and over again with different outcomes, the trader will make $60 many, many more times than he or she will take the $440 loss. This was a hypothetical situation, but let's say that the strategies winning percentage was close to 85% like in the example above. The trader needs to look at prior historical price action of the stock to determine probability of success.
How does this seem similar to insurance you ask? The credit spread strategy is similar to the insurance business because insurance companies get to keep premiums if people don't get sick or if people don't have accidents, etc. Traders turn themselves into something like an insurance company when they implement credit spreads and keep premium as long as something doesn't go drastically wrong.
Just like an insurance company has to decide if the risk is worth the potential reward, option traders that trade vertical credit spreads have to analyze how much can they collect, how much can they lose and the probability of having a profitable trade. In a future blog, we’ll discuss how a trader can use options implied volatility to help put probability on his or her side.
Senior Options Instructor
Market Taker Mentoring
Thursday, June 2, 2016
There is always potential for the market or individual stocks to move lower. In fact, many traders never even think about bearish strategies because they are always looking for bullish options. Option traders know that stocks and markets do not always go up, but many will wait until they think the decline is over to once again look for a bullish strategy instead of taking advantage of bearish opportunity at hand. Understanding put options is a must for option traders but I am often asked how to choose strike prices. There are several different options to consider and here are a few things to consider specifically based on an expected small move in the underlying. But first let us take break down the anatomy of a put option.
A buyer of a put option has the right, but not the obligation to sell shares of underlying stock at a certain price on or before an expiration day. The price at which the buyer can sell the shares is called the strike price. There are many strike prices and expirations to choose from which can be overwhelming for a trader. When expecting a stock to make a small move especially if the stock is lower in price, it may be advantageous for the trader to select an in-the-money (ITM) put option. An ITM put option is a put with a strike price that is higher than the stock’s current price. Before going further, here’s a look at a possible scenario where buying an ITM put might be warranted.
An ITM put option can be used to capture a relatively small move lower. Suppose an option trader is watching a $10 stock in a downtrend. The stock then rallies higher and now he thinks it is a good time to enter a bearish position with a put option. He surmises the stock might be able to drop about $0.50.
A critical point about capturing this potential $0.50 move down revolves around option delta. Option delta is the rate of change in the option’s value relative to the change in the stock price. Puts have a negative option delta because if the stock rises, puts will lose some of their value. Since puts give the owner the right to sell stock, puts gain value as the stock falls. In this example, the trader is expecting only a $0.50 move lower. Buying an ITM put that has a higher option delta will profit more than a put with a smaller option delta if the anticipated move comes to fruition.
With the stock trading just under $10, the option trader looks at the 10 and 12 strike puts. The 10 strike puts have an option delta of about -0.55 and the 12 strike puts have an option delta of about -0.90. This means that for every $1.00 the stock moves down, the 10 strike put’s premium should increase by $0.55 and the 12 strike put’s premium should increase by $0.90 all other factors held constant. The reverse is also true. If the stock moves higher by $1.00, each put would lose value in the amount of their deltas. Since the expected move is only $0.50, half the deltas would be gained or loss depending on the direction of the stock.
Buying an ITM put option is not always the best way to capture a stock’s move lower, but when it comes to profiting on a perceived small move, an option trader should consider a put option position with a higher option delta and do so with the satisfaction of knowing their loss potential is limited to the cost of the put option.
Tuesday, May 24, 2016
As an option trader, there are quite a few areas to learn and master before being able to extract money from the market on a regular basis. Learning what the option greeks mean and how they function alone and in relation to the other greeks is very important as an option trader. Here we will take a look at one of the greeks and consider what many option traders often fail to consider.
Delta is probably the first greek an option trader learns and is focused on. In fact it can be a critical starting point when learning to trade options. Simply said, delta measures how much the theoretical value of an option will change if the stock moves up or down by $1. A positive delta means the position will rise in value if the stock rises and drop in value of the stock declines. A negative delta means the opposite. The value of the position will rise if the stock declines and drop in value if the stock rises in price. Some traders use delta as an estimate of the likelihood of an option expiring in-the-money (ITM). Though this is common practice, it is not a mathematically accurate representation.
The delta of a single call can range anywhere from 0 to 1.00 and the delta of a single put can range from 0 to -1.00. Generally at-the-money (ATM) options have a delta close to 0.50 for a long call and -0.50 for a long put. If a long call has a delta of 0.50 and the underlying stock moves higher by a dollar, the option premium should increase by $0.50. As you might have derived, long calls have a positive delta and long puts have a negative delta. Just the opposite is true with short options—a short call has a negative delta and a short put has a positive delta. The closer the option’s delta is to 1.00 or -1.00 the more it responds closer to the movement of the stock. Stock has a delta of 1.00 for a long position and -1.00 for a short position.
Taking the above paragraph into context, one may be able to derive that the delta of an option depends a great deal on the price of the stock relative to the strike price of the option. All other factors being held constant, when the stock price changes, the delta changes too.
What many traders fail to understand is that delta is cumulative. A trader can add, subtract and multiply deltas to calculate the delta of the overall position including stock. The overall position delta is a great way to determine the risk/reward of the position. Let’s take a look at a couple of examples.
Let’s say a trader has a bullish outlook on Apple (AAPL) when the stock was trading at $111 and purchases 3 October 110 call options. Each call contract has a delta of +0.55. The total delta of the position would then be +1.65 (3 X 0.55) and not just 0.55. For every dollar AAPL rises all factors being held constant again, the position should profit $165 (100 X 1 X 1.65). If AAPL falls $2, the position should lose around $330 (100 X -2 X 1.65) based on the delta alone.
Using AAPL once again as the example, lets say a trader decides to purchase a October 110/115 bull call spread instead of the long calls. The delta of the long $110 call is once again 0.55 and the delta of the short $115 call is -0.40. The overall delta of the position is 0.15 (0.55 - 0.40). If AAPL moves higher by $3, the position will now gain $45 (100 X 3 X 0.15) with all factors being held constant again. If AAPL falls a dollar, the position will suffer a $15 (100 X -1 X 0.15) loss based on the delta alone.
Calculating the position delta is critical for understanding the potential risk/reward of a trader’s position and also of his or her total portfolio as well. If a trader’s portfolio delta is large (positive or negative), then the overall market performance will have a strong impact on the traders profit or loss.
Senior Options Instructor
Market Taker Mentoring